Nuclear Power and Flexible Grid Solutions

May 2024

To scale up a future low-carbon energy system effectively, it is essential to broaden the array of innovative grid solutions. In this context, nuclear energy, especially through the use of small modular reactors (SMRs), stands out for its capability to deliver firm, dispatchable power and heat. The integration of internal thermal energy storage systems enhances the flexibility of nuclear power plants, thereby enabling a more harmonious collaboration with renewable energy sources. In 2024, recognizing the pivotal role of SMRs in Europe’s energy transition, the European Commission inaugurated the Industrial Alliance for Small Modular Reactors. This initiative is designed to accelerate the development and deployment of SMRs across Europe by the early 2030s, aligning with the Commission’s ambitious goal for deep decarbonization by 2040.
Technical Reports & Applicable Papers or Presentations
  • J. Nøland, M. Hjelmeland, L. B. Tjernberg, and Christian Hartmann, “The race to realize small modular reactors: Rapid deployment of clean dispatchable energy sources,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 2–14, May–June 2024;
  • D. Michaelson and J. Jiang, “Integration of small modular reactors into renewable energy-based standalone microgrids: An energy management perspective,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 57–63, 2022,
  • M. Huang, X. Cui, N. Zhang, M. Jia, and Y. Wang,“Optimal planning of standalone net-zero energy systems with small modular reactors,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, February 2024; DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2024.3365614;
  • W. Chen, V. Dinavahi, and N. Lin, “Detailed multi-domain modeling and faster-than-real-time hardware emulation of small modular reactor for EMT studies,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, pp. 1–14, March 2024; DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2024.3375256;
  • R. Abu Saleem, J. Kelly, T. Rousan, and P. W. Sauer, “Issues in the use of small modular reactors in microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1230–1236, 2020; DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2019.2936427;
  • B. Poudel and R. Gokaraju,“Small modular reactor (SMR) based hybrid energy system for electricity district heating,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 2794–2802, December 2021; DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2021.3079400;
  • B. Poudel, and R. Gokaraju, “Optimal operation of SMR-RES hybrid energy system for electricity district heating,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 3146–3155, December 2021; DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2021.3080698;
  • A. Sabir, D. Michaelson, and J. Jiang, “Load-frequency control with multimodule small modular reactor configuration: Modeling and dynamic analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 1367–1380, July 2021; DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2021.3089921;
  • Y. Wang, W. Chen, L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Y. Gao, and V. Dinavahi, “Small modular reactors: An overview of modeling, control, simulation, and applications,” IEEE Access, pp. 1–23, January 2024; DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2024.3351220;