Wind Generation and its Grid ConnectionDue to the variable nature of the wind power output, utilities are imposing stringent grid connection codes. These grid codes specify the mandatory technical requirements that a large synchronous generator should fulfil for efficient, safe and economic operation of the power system. In addition to these mandatory requirements, power plants are expected to provide additional support to maintain a second-by-second power balance while maintaining the required level of quality and guaranteeing the security of the system. With the increased penetration of wind power, the larger wind power plants are also now being expected to participate in the mandatory and additional services that the large synchronous generatorsare offering. In this tutorial the basic principles of wind generation are discussed followed by different technologies used for wind turbines. Wind farm collector networks both ac and dc are discussed. The grid code requirement of countries which has a large penetration of wind is presented and the measures taken by wind farm manufacturers to fulfil the grid code requirements are exemplified. Enabling technologies for wind farm connections such as SVC, STATCOM and VSC-HVDCs are also introduced.
Smart metering and demand-side integrationMany governments are encouraging an increase in the share of renewable energy in their national electricity generation mix. With the high penetration of renewable, the operational paradigm of the power system has changed from ‘supply following the demand’ to ‘demand following the supply’. Such a flexible demand is essential to operate the future grid cost-effectively. Smart Metering will be the first step towards getting a flexible demand. In this talk, the functionalities offered by smart meters, smart metering infrastructure, and different demand-side integration opportunities offered by the smart metering infrastructure will be discussed. Also, some of the current research we are carrying out on Non-Intrusive Load monitoring and their applications will be highlighted.
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