From Reliability to Resilience: Planning the Grid Against the Extremes

Although extreme events, mainly natural disasters and climate change-driven severe weather, are the result of naturally occurring processes, power system planners, regulators, and policy makers do not usually recognize them within network reliability standards. Instead, planners have historically designed the electric power infrastructure accounting for the so-called credible (or “average”) outages that usually represent single or (some kind of) simultaneous faults (e.g., faults on double circuits).
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