A Probabilistic Transmission Planning Framework for Reducing Network Vulnerability to Extreme Events
The restructuring of electric power industry has brought in plenty of challenges for transmission expansion planning (TEP), mainly due to uncertainties. The commonly used probabilistic TEP approach requires the network to meet an acceptable risk criterion. However, a series of blackouts in recent years caused by extreme weather-related events have raised the concerns about network vulnerability through calculating the expected risk value. In this paper, we have proposed the concept that TEP should be economically adjusted in order to make network less vulnerable to extreme events (EEs) caused by climate change, e.g., floods or ice storms.
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Smart Cities for a Sustainable Urbanization: Illuminating the Need for Establishing Smart Urban Infrastructures
Cities with substantial population growth continue to encounter economic, social, and environmental challenges in their daily operations. Figure 1 shows how the urban population, in which more than 55% of the globe’s people currently live, has nearly quadrupled since the 1950s. Globally, urbanization is expected to encompass 70% of the world population by 2050, resulting in an unprecedented increase in the consumption of existing resources.
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