As environmental concerns increase, researchers, policy makers, and the public in general are becoming more interested in options to make energy more sustainable while at the same time ensuring that energy systems are affordable, reliable, and resilient. This dynamic is bringing about challenges across the world, as established energy systems (such as those in cities) must be enhanced to integrate large volumes of renewable energy sources (RES), while new or evolving systems (for instance, in developing economies) must be planned to manage the increasingly extreme conditions associated with climate change.
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Worldwide, there are unstoppable forces toward low-carbon power systems that can support the fight against climate change and help solve the security of supply issues in many countries. Low-carbon grids are likely to be characterized by substantial renewable energy sources, both centralized and distributed, combined with intelligent and dynamic demand-side technology and multisector electrification (including heating, transport, and future fuels). In this context, successfully resolving the “affordability-sustainability-reliability” energy trilemma is crucial for paving the way to low-carbon energy futures.
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